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One of the more controversial market topics of late is actually focused 230 miles southwest of Wall Street—in the nation’s capitol: Washington, D.C.

In recent years, a growing spotlight has been affixed on trades by members of Congress. That’s because 535 of the most powerful people in the world—with not only access to information most people don’t have, but the ability to control policy—have also been abnormally savvy investors at times.

To be clear: Senators and representatives alike are legally allowed to buy, hold, and sell stocks. There are limitations and other rules governing their actions—such as the Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge (STOCK) Act. Still, in-depth reporting of Congressional investing track records has unveiled cases of extreme outperformance, leading many to argue over whether the guardrails surrounding Congressional trading are firm enough.

How extreme? For the answer, we’ll look to Unusual Whales—a firm that provides financial tools and services to traders, and that for the past few years has produced an annual report highlighting some of the unusual trading activity coming from the halls of Congress. Specifically, we’ll look at the highest-performing Congressional investors in 2023, based on Unusual Whales’ analysis and estimates of their 2023 transaction filings.

About Unusual Whales’ Congressional Report


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Unusual Whales is a financial data and services firm that bills itself as “the most complete and affordable options, equity, flow platform available to retail traders.”

And over the past few years, they’ve garnered heightened attention thanks to their annual Congressional Trading Report, which documents and analyzes findings from Congress’s required personal financial disclosures. These disclosures, which are available publicly on the House and Senate websites, are designed to create much-needed transparency around legislators’ financial dealings.

However, in a bubble, they’re not terribly helpful to the average Joe. Enter Unusual Whales, which has analyzed and provided context to the most important findings from these reports.

For instance, in 2023, 100 of the 535 members of Congress filed disclosures that indicated trading. Of these, Unusual Whales estimates that a third of them beat the S&P 500; that transaction volume was down compared to 2022; and that after a year of not trading options, Congresspeople began trading options once more in 2023.

Read on to discover which members of Congress beat the S&P 500’s 24.8% gain in 2023. After that, we’ll show you where to find the full report, as well as sign up for more insights from Unusual Whales.

One Note Before the Results


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Plenty of outlets have weighed in on every angle regarding the morality of Congressional trading. You won’t find that in the slides ahead—we’re leaving that for the comments section.

Instead, we’re providing the following information:

— Party affiliation.

— Congressional district represented (House of Representatives) or state represented (Senate).

— Estimated 2023 portfolio gain. Unusual Whales estimated the current stocks held in each congressperson’s portfolio, then calculated year-to-date returns, to produce this number.

— Estimated 2023 outperformance. We’ve subtracted the S&P 500’s 2023 return from the Unusual Whales’ estimated 2023 portfolio gain to produce this number.

— Sectors bought into during 2023. These are the sectors that were represented by a congressperson’s stock purchases in 2023.

— Sectors sold out of during 2023. These are the sectors that were represented by a congressperson’s stock sales in 2023.

32. Rep. John Curtis


Rep. John Curtis
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 3rd (Utah)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 25.3%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 0.5 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Materials, Communication Services, Consumer Staples, Energy, Health Care, Industrials, Technology

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Materials, Communication Services, Consumer Discretionary, Consumer Staples, Energy, Financials, Health Care, Industrials, Technology

Related: 15 Best Investing Research & Stock Analysis Websites

31. Rep. Josh Gottheimer


Rep. Josh Gottheimer
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 5th (New Jersey)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 25.4%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 0.6 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: All

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: All

Related: How to Invest Money: 5 Steps to Start Investing w/Little Money

30. Rep. Mikie Sherrill


Rep. Mikie Sherrill
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 11th (New Jersey)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 25.9%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 1.1 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Financials

Related: 11 Best Stock Portfolio Tracking Apps [Stock Portfolio Trackers]

29. Rep. Chuck Fleischmann


Rep. Chuck Fleischmann
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 3rd (Tennessee)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 28.3%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 3.5 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Financials, Industrials, Technology

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Communication Services, Consumer Discretionary, Industrials

Related: 11 Best Stock Trading Apps [Free + Paid]

28. Rep. Kathy Manning


Rep. Kathy Manning
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 6th (North Carolina)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 33.4%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 8.6 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Consumer Discretionary, Financials, Health Care, Technology

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Materials, Communication Services, Consumer Discretionary, Consumer Staples, Financials, Health Care, Industrials, Technology

Related: 11 Best Stock Screeners & Stock Scanners

27. Sen. Tina Smith


Sen. Tina Smith
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— State Represented: Minnesota

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 35.4%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 10.6 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Health Care

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Health Care

Related: 16 Best Brokerage Account Bonuses, Promotions + Deals

26. Rep. Daniel Meuser


Rep. Daniel Meuser
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 9th (Pennsylvania)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 36.3%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 11.5 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Health Care, Technology

Related: 11 Best Alternative Investments [Options to Consider]

25. Rep. Dan Crenshaw


Rep. Dan Crenshaw
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 2nd (Texas)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 38.2%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 13.4 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: None

Related: 9 Best Day Trading Platforms [Apps + Software]

24. Sen. Markwayne Mullin


Sen. Markwayne Mullin
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— State Represented: Oklahoma

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 40.1%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 15.3 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Materials, Communication Services, Consumer Discretionary, Consumer Staples, Energy, Financials, Health Care, Industrials, Technology

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: None

Related: 10 Best 401(k) Alternatives [If You Can’t Get One Through Work]

23. Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse


Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— State Represented: Rhode Island

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 41.1%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 16.3 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Communication Services, Consumer Discretionary, Consumer Staples, Health Care

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Communication Services, Consumer Staples, Financials, Industrials, Real Estate, Technology

Related: 14 Best Investment Opportunities for Accredited Investors

22. Rep. Deborah Ross


Rep. Deborah Ross
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 2nd (North Carolina)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 46.1%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 21.3 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Technology

Related: Tax Preparation Checklist [Get Your Tax Documents In Order]

21. Rep. Jonathan Jackson


Rep. Jonathan Jackson
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 1st (Illinois)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 47.0%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 22.2 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Materials, Communication Services, Consumer Discretionary, Consumer Staples, Energy, Financials, Health Care, Industrials, Technology

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Consumer Discretionary, Consumer Staples, Energy, Financials, Health Care, Industrials, Technology, Utilities

Related: 19 Best High-Yield Investments [Safe Options Right Now]

20. Rep. Dan Newhouse


Rep. Dan Newhouse
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 4th (Washington)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 47.3%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 22.5 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Communication Services, Consumer Discretionary, Financials, Industrials, Real Estate, Technology

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Consumer Discretionary, Energy, Industrials, Technology

Related: 23 Best Income-Generating Assets [Invest in Cash Flow]

19. Rep. Doug Lamborn


Rep. Doug Lamborn
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 5th (Colorado)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 49.0%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 24.2 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Technology

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Technology

Related: 17 Best Stock News Apps & Sites [Financial & Stock Market Info]

18. Rep. David Kustoff


Rep. David Kustoff
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 8th (Tennessee)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 50.3%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 25.5 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Consumer Discretionary, Technology

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Technology

Related: 11 Best Compound Interest Investments [Where to Invest]

17. Rep. Daniel Goldman


Rep. Daniel Goldman
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 10th (New York)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 52.8%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 28.0 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: All

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: All

Related: 10 Best Micro Investing Apps [Small, Automated Stock Trading]

16. Rep. Ed Case


Rep. Ed Case
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 1st (Hawaii)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 53.2%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 28.4 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: None

Related: 9 Best Portfolio Analysis Tools [Portfolio Analyzer Options]

15. Rep. Suzan DelBene


Rep. Suzan DelBene
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 1st (Washington)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 53.7%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 28.9 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Technology

Related: 10 Investments that Earn a Great Return [10% or More]

14. Rep. Robert Aderholt


Rep. Robert Aderholt
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 4th (Alabama)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 54.0%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 29.2 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: None

Related: 11 Best Non-Stock Investments [Alternatives to the Stock Market]

13. Sen. Susan Collins


Sen. Susan Collins
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— State Represented: Maine

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 55.5%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 30.7 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: None

Related: 13 Best Stock & Investment Newsletters for Inbox Alpha

12. Sen. Dan Sullivan


Rep. Dan Sullivan
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— State Represented: Alaska

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 60.5%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 35.7 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Communication Services, Consumer Discretionary, Consumer Staples, Health Care

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Materials, Communication Services, Consumer Discretionary, Consumer Staples, Energy, Financials, Health Care, Industrials, Technology

Related: 36 Best Passive Income Ideas [Income Investments to Consider]

11. Rep. Morgan McGarvey


Rep. Morgan McGarvey
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 3rd (Kentucky)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 61.3%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 36.5 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Consumer Discretionary, Financials, Technology

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Communication Services, Technology

Related: Capital Gains Tax: What Is It, Rates, Home Sales + More

10. Rep. Pete Sessions


Rep. Pete Sessions
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 17th (Texas)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 63.3%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 38.5 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Financials, Technology

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Communication Services, Consumer Discretionary, Consumer Staples, Energy, Financials, Health Care, Industrials, Real Estate, Technology

Related: Federal Tax Brackets and Rates

9. Rep. Nancy Pelosi


Rep. Nancy Pelosi
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 11th (California)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 65.5%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 40.7 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Technology

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: None

Related: Best Free Portfolio Trackers + Portfolio Management Software

8. Sen. Richard Blumenthal


Sen. Richard Blumenthal
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— State Represented: Connecticut

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 68.1%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 43.3 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Communication Services, Consumer Staples, Technology

Related: 7 Best Stock Recommendation Services [Stock Tips + Picks]

7. Rep. John Rutherford


Rep. John Rutherford
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 5th (Florida)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 69.1%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 44.3 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: None

Related: 5 Best Money Market Funds [Protect Your Savings]

6. Sen. Ron Wyden


Sen. Ron Wyden
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— State Represented: Oregon

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 78.5%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 53.7 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: None

Related: 8 Best Personal Capital Alternatives

5. Rep. Seth Moulton


Rep. Seth Moulton
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 6th (Massachusetts)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 80.0%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 55.2 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Communication Services

Related: 7 Best Stock Portfolio Management Software Tools + Apps

4. Rep. David Rouzer


Rep. David Rouzer
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 7th (North Carolina)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 105.6%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 80.8 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: None

Related: 21 Best Stock Research & Analysis Apps, Tools and Sites

3. Rep. Garret Graves


Rep. Garret Graves
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 6th (Louisiana)

— State Represented: State

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 107.6%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 82.8 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: None

Related: 11 Best Stock Advisor Websites & Services to Seize Alpha

2. Rep. Mark Green


Rep. Mark Green
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Republican

— Congressional District Represented: 7th (Tennessee)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 122.2%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 97.4 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: Energy

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: Energy

Related: How to Get Free Stocks for Signing Up: 15 Apps w/Free Shares

1. Rep. Brian Higgins


Rep. Brian Higgins
U.S. Congress

— Party Affiliation: Democrat

— Congressional District Represented: 26th (New York)

— Estimated 2023 Portfolio Gain: 238.9%

— Estimated 2023 Outperformance: 214.1 percentage points

— Sectors Bought Into During 2023: None

— Sectors Sold Out Of During 2023: None

Related: 18 Best Investment Apps and Platforms [Free + Paid]

Learn More About Unusual Whales’ Congressional Report


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You can read Unusual Whales’ full report here, and we recommend you do. They provide a breakdown of their past few years’ worth of data for the full Congress, political parties, committees and sectors, and individual representatives and senators. They also provide other data, such as the top stocks bought and sold by representatives and senators, which members of Congress trade options, and even a few unusual trades.

You can even follow Congressional members’ track records yourself with an Unusual Whales subscription. And remember: The disclosures that powered this report are available publicly on the House and Senate websites.

Past that, Unusual Whales provides a host of information for people who might be more interested in Wall Street than Washington. Among its offerings are real-time data tracking every completed options trade on U.S. exchanges, a market sentiment gauge, insider trading data, data on institutions and “whales,” and more.

About the Author

Riley Adams is the Founder and CEO of WealthUp (previously Young and the Invested). He is a licensed CPA who worked at Google as a Senior Financial Analyst overseeing advertising incentive programs for the company’s largest advertising partners and agencies. Previously, he worked as a utility regulatory strategy analyst at Entergy Corporation for six years in New Orleans.

His work has appeared in major publications like Kiplinger, MarketWatch, MSN, TurboTax, Nasdaq, Yahoo! Finance, The Globe and Mail, and CNBC’s Acorns. Riley currently holds areas of expertise in investing, taxes, real estate, cryptocurrencies and personal finance where he has been cited as an authoritative source in outlets like CNBC, Time, NBC News, APM’s Marketplace, HuffPost, Business Insider, Slate, NerdWallet, Investopedia, The Balance and Fast Company.

Riley holds a Masters of Science in Applied Economics and Demography from Pennsylvania State University and a Bachelor of Arts in Economics and Bachelor of Science in Business Administration and Finance from Centenary College of Louisiana.